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Noriega relied upon military nationalism to maintain his support, and did not espouse a specific social or economic ideology. In 1988, Noriega was indicted by federal grand juries in Miami and Tampa on charges of racketeering, drug smuggling, and money laundering. Following the 1989 U.S. invasion of Panama, he was captured and flown to the United States, where he was tried on the Miami indictment. The trial, lasting from September 1991 to April 1992, ended with Noriega's conviction on most of the charges. He was sentenced to 40 years iwhere he was sentenced to seven years of imprisonment for money laundering. In 2011 France extradited him to Panama, where he was sentenced for murder.Diagnosed with a brain tumor in March 2017, Noriega suffered complications during surgery, and died two months later. Generally described as a military dictatorship, Noriega's rule in Panama was marked by repression of the media, an expansion of the militilitary, the government, and the judiciary, later allowing him to blackmail them. He also held the positions of head of the political police, and head of immigration. His tenure was marked by intimidation and harassment of opposition parties and their leaders. He was described as doing much of Torrijos "dirty work". Journalist Frederick Kempe wrote in 1990 that Noriega had been linked to a series of bombings targeting U.S. territory that followed the administration of U.S. President Gerald Ford stepping back from negotiations about the Panama Canal during the prelude to the U.S Presidential election in 1976. The bombings highlighted to the U.S. government the difficulty of holding on to the Panama Canal Zone in the face of hostility within Panama. Kempe stated that the U.S. knew of Noriega's involvement in the bombings but decided to turn a blind eyary, and the persecution of political opponents, effectively controlling the outcomes of any elections. He was known for his complicated relationship with the U.S., being described as being its ally and nemesis at the same time. He has been called one of the best-known dictators of his time, and compared to authoritarian rulers such as